Wednesday, July 23, 2014

The Weather

It was cloudy in Boulder, Colorado today. South of Denver had some larger storms. Below is the radar base reflectivity and the radar velocity. A gusty outflow boundary is visible on both maps.

Base reflectivity measures the presence of particles such as precipitation and dust (and sometimes even birds and bugs). 
Velocity measures the speed of the particles relative to the Doppler's location. Orange colors indicate particles moving away from the radar, and greens indicate particles moving toward the radar.
Meanwhile, the Wasatch Front is experiencing some hot weather and scattered thunderstorms. The MesoWest observations on the left show today's high temperatures. The radar image on the right shows thunderstorms near Ogden. (Click the images to make them bigger.)

Monday, July 21, 2014

What is WRF?

WRF stands for the Weather and Research Forecast Model. Pretty much, it's thousands of lines of FORTRAN code that, when executed, predict the weather. This is known as numerical weather prediction (NWP). Learning a little about NWP will help you appreciate your cute little weather app on your phone. 

I'm in Boulder at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) for the WRF Tutorial Training. There are at least 40 people here from all kinds of professions and literally from every continent (yes, even Antarctica is represented. A researcher from England is headed to the South Pole later this year.)

To run the WRF model, all you need is a Linux computer. You can download the model for free and then make your own weather forecasts for any area in the world you are interested in. Ok, it's a little more difficult than that. That's why I'm here for a week.

A weather forecast first starts as data. You need weather observations taken from weather stations, weather balloons, and satellites. Oh, and you also need another weather forecast. That piece might seem unnecessary. Why do you need a forecast to make a forecast? 

The GFS (global) and NAM (North America) model data is created at low resolution. Have you ever seen a pixelated picture? That's what the GFS model looks like.
When you increase the resolution, the picture looks much more realistic...
Obviously, the second picture of Mario is better. That is why WRF is used. Weather forecasts made by WRF use the coarse forecasts to increase the resolution of the forecast. These forecasts can be tuned for specific purposes.

WRF looks good, so why don't we just use that? Or why not run the GFS or NAM at higher resolutions? Well, there are several problems. The most obvious problem is computing power. Computers aren't powerful or fast enough to create a global weather forecast at this high resolution.

WRF is like a weather playground. The code allows the user to change anything you want. Imagine, all the knobs and buttons that control the weather in your control!!! Have you ever wondered what the weather would be like if there were no mountains? What if the lake was 5 degrees warmer? How can we make it snow? How does the weather change after a volcano erupts? Why was the forecast wrong and how can we get the forecast right next time?

Why is this useful? Scientists can investigate ways to make weather forecasts more accurate during specific situations. There is a high resolution WRF model run over Utah, and you can get the data from the National Weather Service. You can get the WRF forecast for Utah here: The trick is interpreting all this data. That's why meteorologist have jobs.

For my research the the University of Utah, I'll be using WRF to better understand the dreaded inversions and cold air pools that cause unhealthy air quality in the winters. Inversions are not accurately modeled in large scale models like the GFS or NAM. Hopefully with the WRF we'll learn how to better forecast these events.

And this is Warf, who joined us for our WRF lectures...

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Tail Wind

On my way to the WRF Training Workshop in Boulder Colorado. WRF is the Weather Research and Forecast Model used by scientists and meteorologist for weather related research, mesoscale weather forecasting, and developing weather models. Looks like we'll have a tail wind heading to Denver.

Update: Our flight was a short one. We left a half hour late and arrived in Denver on-time. We were only at cruising altitude (31,000 ft) for less than 15 minutes and then we were making our approach to Denver.
Stable layer with stratus clouds and an overshooting top of a cumulus cloud. 

Convection caused a bit of turbulence.

Saturday, July 19, 2014


I've seen a few friends from across the country sharing pictures of pretty orange sunsets the last two days. The reason for these orange sunsets is all the smoke in the air. It's even hard to see the mountains. 
University of Utah, WBB building looking West to downtown Salt Lake City.

The Aqua and Terra satellites show hot spots and smoke in Washington and Oregon.

The map below shows the location of fires and smoke across the country.

We've had strong westerly winds that are responsible for transporting all the smoke. Today's 700 mb mesoanlysis shows these winds. 
And speaking of fires, there was a field fire in Spanish Fork today...

Monday, July 14, 2014

Hottest Day -- So Far

Today was a hot one. Spanish Fork maxed out at 103 F this afternoon! That is the hottest day of the far. Below show the max temperatures for Utah County.

Salt Lake County experienced similar temperatures, and some dust. Thunderstorms in northern Utah are causing gusty winds as fast as 50 mph. The strong winds are blowing quite a bit of dust into the Salt Lake Valley. In the radar image below you can see the outflow boundary...

The airport is probably having a great day. For all you airplane nerds out there, you can listen to airtraffic control here: Plus, you can watch planes land in Salt Lake International here:

Below shows the MesoWest observations at the airport at the time of the gust front blew past the airport...